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Hispanic Heritage Month 2009:

Sept. 15 – Oct. 15

In September 1968, Congress authorized President Lyndon B. Johnson to proclaim National Hispanic Heritage Week, which was observed during the week that included Sept. 15 and Sept. 16. The observance was expanded in 1988 to a monthlong celebration (Sept. 15 – Oct. 15). America celebrates the culture and traditions of those who trace their roots to Spain, Mexico and the Spanish-speaking nations of Central America, South America and the Caribbean. Sept. 15 was chosen as the starting point for the celebration because it is the anniversary of independence of five Latin American countries: Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua. In addition, Mexico and Chile celebrate their independence days on Sept. 16 and Sept. 18, respectively.

46.9 million
The estimated Hispanic population of the United States as of July 1, 2008, making people of Hispanic origin the nation’s largest ethnic or race minority. Hispanics constituted 15 percent of the nation’s total population. In addition, there are approximately 4 million residents of Puerto Rico.
Source: Population estimates and

More than 1
. . . of every two people added to the nation’s population between July 1, 2007, and July 1, 2008, was Hispanic. There were 1.5 million Hispanics added to the population during the period.
Source: Population estimates

Percentage increase in the Hispanic population between July 1, 2007, and July 1, 2008, making Hispanics the fastest-growing minority group.
Source: Population estimates

132.8 million
The projected Hispanic population of the United States on July 1, 2050. According to this projection, Hispanics will constitute 30 percent of the nation’s population by that date.
Source: Population projections

22.4 million
The nation’s Hispanic population during the 1990 Census — less than half the current total.
Source: The Hispanic Population: 2000

Ranking of the size of the U.S. Hispanic population worldwide, as of 2008. Only Mexico (110 million) had a larger Hispanic population than the United States (46.9 million).
Source: International Data Base and population estimates

The percentage of Hispanic-origin people in the United States who were of Mexican background in 2007. Another 9 percent were of Puerto Rican background, with 3.5 percent Cuban, 3.1 percent Salvadoran and 2.7 percent Dominican. The remainder were of some other Central American, South American or other Hispanic or Latino origin.
Source: 2007 American Community Survey

About 45 percent of the nation’s Dominicans lived in New York City in 2007 and about half of the nation’s Cubans in Miami-Dade County, Fla.
Source: 2007 American Community Survey

Percentage of children younger than 5 who were Hispanic in 2008. All in all, Hispanics comprised 22 percent of children younger than 18.
Source: Population estimates

27.7 years
Median age of the Hispanic population in 2008. This compared with 36.8 years for the population as a whole.
Source: Population estimates

Number of Hispanic males in 2008 per every 100 Hispanic females. This was in sharp contrast to the overall population, which had 97 males per every 100 females.
Source: Population estimates
States and Counties

The percentage of the Hispanic-origin population that lived in California or Texas in 2008. California was home to 13.5 million Hispanics, and Texas was home to 8.9 million.
Source: Population estimates

The number of states with at least a half-million Hispanic residents — Arizona, California, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Massachusetts, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Texas, Virginia and Washington.
Source: Population estimates

The percentage of New Mexico’s population that was Hispanic in 2008, the highest of any state. Hispanics also made up at least one fifth of the population in California and Texas, at 37 percent each, Arizona (30 percent), Nevada (26 percent), Florida (21 percent) and Colorado (20 percent). New Mexico had 891,000 Hispanics.
Source: Population estimates

The Carolinas
The states with the highest percentage increases in Hispanic population between July 1, 2007, and July 1, 2008. South Carolina’s increase was 7.7 percent and North Carolina’s was 7.4 percent.
Source: Population estimates

4.7 million
The Hispanic population of Los Angeles County, Calif., in 2008 — the largest of any county in the nation. Los Angeles County also had the biggest numerical increase in the Hispanic population (67,000) since July 2007.
Source: Population estimates

Proportion of the population of Starr County, Texas, that was Hispanic as of 2008, which led the nation. All of the top 10 counties in this category were in Texas.
Source: Population estimates

Number of the nation’s 3,142 counties that are majority-Hispanic.
Source: Population estimates

Percent increase in the Hispanic population in Luzerne County, Pa., from July 1, 2007, to July 1, 2008. Among all counties with 2007 Hispanic populations of at least 10,000, Luzerne topped the nation in this category. Luzerne’s county seat is Wilkes-Barre.
Source: Population estimates

The increase in California’s Hispanic population between July 1, 2007, and July 1, 2008, which led all states. Texas (305,000) and Florida (111,000) also recorded large increases.
Source: Population estimates

Number of states in which Hispanics are the largest minority group. These states are Arizona, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Florida, Idaho, Iowa, Kansas, Massachusetts, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, Oregon, Rhode Island, Texas, Utah, Washington and Wyoming.
Source: Population estimates

Source for statements in this section: Hispanic-owned Firms: 2002

1.6 million
The number of Hispanic-owned businesses in 2002.

* Nearly 43 percent of Hispanic-owned firms operated in construction; administrative and support, and waste management and remediation services; and other services, such as personal services, and repair and maintenance. Retail and wholesale trade accounted for nearly 36 percent of Hispanic-owned business revenue.
* Counties with the highest number of Hispanic-owned firms were Los Angeles County (188,422); Miami-Dade County (163,187); and Harris County, Texas (61,934).

The rate of growth of Hispanic-owned businesses between 1997 and 2002 (31 percent) compared with the national average (10 percent) for all businesses.

$222 billion
Revenue generated by Hispanic-owned businesses in 2002, up 19 percent from 1997.

. . . of all Hispanic-owned firms were owned by people of Mexican origin (Mexican, Mexican-American or Chicano).

Number of Hispanic-owned firms with receipts of $1 million or more.
Families and Children

10.4 million
The number of Hispanic family households in the United States in 2008. Of these households, 62 percent included children younger than 18.
Source: Families and Living Arrangements

The percentage of Hispanic family households consisting of a married couple.
Source: Families and Living Arrangements

The percentage of Hispanic family households consisting of a married couple with children younger than 18.
Source: Families and Living Arrangements

Percentage of Hispanic children living with two parents.
Source: Families and Living Arrangements

Spanish Language

35 million
The number of U.S. residents 5 and older who spoke Spanish at home in 2007. Those who hablan espaƱol constituted 12 percent of U.S. residents. More than half of these Spanish speakers spoke English “very well.”
Source: 2007 American Community Survey

Number of states where at least one-in-five residents spoke Spanish at home in 2007 — Arizona, California, New Mexico and Texas.
Source: 2007 American Community Survey

Percentage of Hispanics 5 and older who spoke Spanish at home in 2007.
Source: 2007 American Community Survey
Income, Poverty and Health Insurance

The median income of Hispanic households in 2007, statistically unchanged from the previous year after adjusting for inflation.
Source: Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2007

The poverty rate among Hispanics in 2007, up from 20.6 percent in 2006.
Source: Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2007

The percentage of Hispanics who lacked health insurance in 2007, down from 34.1 percent in 2006.
Source: Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2007


The percentage of Hispanic 4-year-olds enrolled in nursery school in 2007, up from 43 percent in 1997 and 21 percent in 1987.
Source: School Enrollment – Social and Economic Characteristics of Students: October 2007

The percentage of Hispanics 25 and older who had at least a high school education in 2008.
Source: Educational Attainment in the United States: 2008

The percentage of the Hispanic population 25 and older with a bachelor’s degree or higher in 2008.
Source: Educational Attainment in the United States: 2008

3.6 million
The number of Hispanics 18 and older who had at least a bachelor’s degree in 2008.
Source: Educational Attainment in the United States: 2008

1 million
Number of Hispanics 25 and older with advanced degrees in 2008 (e.g., master’s, professional, doctorate).
Source: Educational Attainment in the United States: 2008

Percentage of full-time college students (both undergraduate and graduate students) in October 2007 who were Hispanic, up from 10 percent in 2006.
Source: School Enrollment – Social and Economic Characteristics of Students: October 2007

Percentage of elementary and high school students combined who were Hispanic.
Source: School Enrollment – Social and Economic Characteristics of Students: October 2007


The number of Hispanic surnames ranked among the 15 most common in 2000. It was the first time that a Hispanic surname reached the top 15 during a census. Garcia was the most frequent Hispanic surname, occurring 858,289 times and placing eighth on the list — up from 18th in 1990. Rodriguez (ninth), Martinez (11th) and Hernandez (15th) were the next most common Hispanic surnames.
Source: Census 2000 Genealogy

Percentage of Hispanics 16 and older who were in the civilian labor force in 2007.
Source: 2007 American Community Survey

The percentage of Hispanics 16 or older who worked in management, professional and related occupations in 2007. The same percentage worked in production, transportation and material moving occupations. Another 16 percent worked in construction, extraction, maintenance and repair occupations. Approximately 24 percent of Hispanics 16 or older worked in service occupations; 21 percent in sales and office occupations; and 2 percent in farming, fishing and forestry occupations.
Source: 2007 American Community Survey

Number of Hispanic chief executives. In addition, 50,866 physicians and surgeons; 48,720 postsecondary teachers; 38,532 lawyers; and 2,726 news analysts, reporters and correspondents are Hispanic.
Source: Upcoming Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2010, Table 603

9.7 million
The number of Hispanic citizens who reported voting in the 2008 presidential election, about 2 million more than voted in 2004. The percentage of Hispanic citizens voting — 50 percent — represented a statistical increase from 2004 (47 percent).
Source: Voting and Registration in the Election of 2008

Serving our Country

1.1 million`
The number of Hispanic veterans of the U.S. armed forces.
Source: 2007 American Community Survey Stumble It!

Unmarried and Single Americans Week

Sept. 20-26, 2009

“National Singles Week” was started by the Buckeye Singles Council in Ohio in the 1980s to celebrate single life and recognize singles and their contributions to society. The week is now widely observed during the third full week of September (Sept. 20-26 in 2009) as “Unmarried and Single Americans Week,” an acknowledgment that many unmarried Americans do not identify with the word “single” because they are parents, have partners or are widowed. In this edition of Facts for Features, unmarried people include those who were never married, widowed, or divorced, unless otherwise noted.
Single Life

95.9 million
Number of unmarried Americans 18 and older in 2008. This group comprised 43 percent of all U.S. residents 18 and older.

Percentage of unmarried Americans 18 and older who were women.

Percentage of unmarried Americans 18 and older who had never been married. Another 24 percent were divorced, and 15 percent were widowed.

15.8 million
Number of unmarried Americans 65 and older. These older Americans comprised 16 percent of all unmarried and single people 18 and older.

Number of unmarried men 18 and older for every 100 unmarried women in the United States.

52.9 million
Number of households maintained by unmarried men or women. These households comprised 45 percent of households nationwide.

32.2 million
Number of people who lived alone. They comprised 28 percent of all households, up from 17 percent in 1970.

Source for statements in this section: America’s Families and Living Arrangements: 2008


Percentage of women age 15 to 50 with a birth in the last 12 months, as of 2006, who either were widowed, divorced or never married. About 199,000 were living with an unmarried partner. Source: Fertility of American Women: 2006

11.6 million
Number of single parents living with their children in 2008. Of these, 9.8 million were single mothers.
Source: America’s Families and Living Arrangements: 2008

Percentage of opposite-sex, unmarried-partner households that included at least one biological child of either partner.
Source: America’s Families and Living Arrangements: 2008

Number of unmarried grandparents who were caregivers for their grandchildren in 2007. They comprised about three in 10 grandparents who were responsible for their grandchildren. Source: 2007 American Community Survey

Unmarried Couples

6.2 million
Number of unmarried-partner households in 2007. These included 5.5 million of the opposite sex.
Source: 2007 American Community Survey

The number of dating service establishments nationwide as of 2002. These establishments, which include Internet dating services, employed nearly 4,300 people and generated $489 million in revenues. Source: 2002 Economic Census


Percentage of voters in the 2008 presidential election who were unmarried. Source: Voting and Registration in the Election of 2008


Percentage of unmarried people 25 and older in 2008 who were high school graduates. Source: Educational Attainment in the United States: 2008

Percentage of unmarried people 25 and older in 2008 with a bachelor’s degree or more education. Source: Educational Attainment in the United States: 2008
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How to Avoid Car Accidents

from wikiHow - The How to Manual That You Can Edit

Car accidents happen all the time. Someone's car is totalled once every 5 seconds. Avoiding accidents can save you a lot of time and money. This means learning defensive driving. But what exactly is defensive driving?


  1. Slow down. Obey the speed limit even if every other car is surpassing it. Remember that police officers often stay hidden from view while looking for speeders. If you're caught driving too fast, they won't hesitate to give you a ticket.
  2. Let others pass you. Defensive driving means letting others go ahead-not defending your position in traffic. Avoid the urge to be a vigilante ("Oh yeah? Let me show you what it's like to be cut off like that!") Accept the fact that someone is always going to think they're in more of a hurry than you. These are the drivers you want to move far away from, not to 'teach them a lesson.'
  3. Try to avoid driving in bad weather. Always keep your windshield wipers going in the rain or snow. Defrost your windshield to keep it from fogging up. Turn on your headlights to help others to see you--this is also the law in some states. If possible, try to avoid driving in the snow at all, especially if your car is rear wheel drive. If you must go out in the snow, drive extra slow, use the brakes and gas pedal gently, and maintain an increased stopping distance.
  4. Never get into a car with a drunk driver. It is always best to have a "designated driver". Never drive after you have had alcoholic beverages. Even one beer can alter your ability to drive safely.
  5. Wear a seatbelt. This is a must. By law in many countries, all cars must have a safety restraint. Buckling up only takes a second and can save your life in an accident. Children should always be in a booster seat or car seat until they are tall enough and heavy enough to sit by themselves. This generally includes children age eight and under. Never put a child in a car or booster seat in the front passenger seat or other seat with airbags. Children should generally be 12 and older when sitting in the front passenger seat.
  6. Keep your car and its accessories in good condition. Keep the tires properly inflated, the brakes adjusted, and the windshields and windows clean. Replace windshield wiper blades when they begin to streak, and all make sure all the lights are working properly.
  7. Use your signals properly. Always use your signal, even if you think no one is there. When changing lanes on the freeway, don't signal as an afterthought or during the lane change. Signal at least a couple of seconds in advance so others know what you're going to do before you do it. (Ever notice how most of the skid marks along the highway are just before an exit ramp? - this is where you have to be the most careful.)
  8. Don't tailgate. No matter how slowly traffic is moving, keep at least two seconds of following distance between you and the car ahead. Any less and you won't be able to stop in time if the driver ahead slams on the brakes.
  9. Keep your eyes moving. Don't get in the habit of staring at the back of the car ahead of you. Periodically shift your eyes to the side-view mirrors, the rear-view mirror, and ahead to where you'll be in 10-15 seconds. Doing this, you can spot a potentially dangerous situation before it happens.
  10. Dim your lights when driving at night, when another car is approaching, or when you are following behind a vehicle. Your lights can temporarily blind another driver.
  11. Avoid distractions when you are driving. Pull over if you need to talk on the phone, read directions, or eat a snack. It only takes a second or two of distraction to get into trouble.


  • Drive at or below the speed limit to avoid more dangerous accidents.
  • Drive on the right lane of the road whenever possible.
  • "Move to the RIGHT for sirens and lights!" Emergency vehicles can appear in your rear view mirror suddenly. Memorize and abide by the handy rhyme, for everyone's benefit!
  • Always keep your headlights on, even in the day.
  • If you have a elderly relative who is driving and should not because of their eyesight or hearing than do not drive with them! Insist that they stop driving or re-take their drivers test.
  • Never stand behind a car with its engine running. The driver might not see you or make a mistake.
  • Don't Text and Drive!


  • Always wear your seatbelt. Make all passengers wear their seatbelts. Pets should be in the back of the car not in front seat with you.
  • Never drive after drinking alcohol or when you are tired.
  • Never ride in a car with a drunk person behind the wheel.
  • Never ride on the roof of any car. If you fall you will be killed.
  • You will receive tickets in most areas if caught without wearing a seatbelt.
  • Do not run red lights or stop signs.
  • Be mindful of any emergency vehicle approaching from any direction and give way if the vehicle emergency lights are flashing and siren is sounding.
  • Approaching emergency vehicles (primarily Fire Department vehicles and ambulances) can override the normal pattern of traffic signals in some circumstances. Both the emergency vehicle and the traffic signal must be equipped with the appropriate devices, and only some cities and certain intersections have such devices installed. One of the most common is the "Opticom" system, basically recognized as a very fast-flashing white strobe light mounted at or near the top of the emergency vehicle (not the "wig-wag" flashing high-beam headlights). A small receiving unit mounted on the traffic signal pole receives the "strobe code" and turns traffic lights green for the approaching emergency vehicle and red in all other directions. Such systems have been shown to reduce traffic accidents and injuries/fatalities involving emergency vehicles while improving response times to life-threatening emergencies. Emergency vehicles can only take control of intersection traffic lights if they are traveling in an emergency response mode - with all emergency lights activated and siren sounding. Once the emergency vehicle travels through the intersection, the traffic signal returns to it's normal pattern.

Things You'll Need

  • A driver's license or permit.
  • Quick reflexes
  • Good judgment
  • Cell Phone

Related wikiHows

Article provided by wikiHow, a wiki how-to manual. Please edit this article and find author credits at the original wikiHow article on How to Avoid Car Accidents. All content on wikiHow can be shared under a Creative Commons license.

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11 'fallback' jobs

11 'fallback' jobs from

1. Emergency medical technician
2. Police officer
3. Phlebotomist
4. HVAC technician
5. Drafter/CADD operator
6. Medical assistant
7. Truck driver
8. Dental assistant
9. Massage therapist
10. Medical records and health information technician
11. Nuclear medicine technologist

1. Emergency medical technician
Job description: Emergency medical technicians, or EMTs, and paramedics respond to everything from heart attacks to auto accidents and violent crime scenes to care for patients and transport them to hospitals. The work can be stressful and difficult, but EMTs have the opportunity to save lives every day.

Training required: There are three basic levels of training, EMT-Basic, EMT-Intermediate and EMT-Paramedic. EMT-Basic courses are generally 100 to 120 hours in length and feature classroom and hands-on training. Graduates of approved programs must pass a written and practical examination administered by the state certifying agency or the National Registry of Emergency Medical Technicians.

Cost of training: Costs can vary significantly -- generally from $800 to $1,200 or more -- depending on the college and training facility.

Expected salary: As of May 2006, the median annual earnings of EMTs and paramedics were $27,070. The middle 50 percent earned between $21,290 and $35,210.

Job availability and outlook: From now until 2016, employment in the field is expected to grow by 19 percent, which is higher than average.
2. Police officer
Job description: Police officers help protect lives and property and apprehend individuals who break the law. Television sometimes portrays police officers as having action-packed jobs, but most of their time is spent writing reports and maintaining records of incidents they encounter. Nevertheless, the job has its dangers and can be stressful.

Training required: In general, departments call for a minimum age of 20 years and require a certain level of physical fitness, a high school education and sometimes one or two years of college level coursework. Police academies are typically 12 to 14 weeks long and include classroom instruction and training in patrol, traffic control, the use of firearms, self-defense, first aid and emergency response.

Cost of training: Candidates must selected to attend a police academy, and then their training is either free, funded or subsidized by municipalities. Many agencies also pay part or all of college tuition toward degrees in criminal justice or police science.

Expected salary: As of May 2006, the median annual earnings of sheriff's patrol officers nationwide were $47,460 and the middle 50 percent earned between $35,600 and $59,880.

Job outlook: The need for police officers is expected to grow 11 percent from now until 2016.
3. Phlebotomist
Job description: Phlebotomists work in hospitals, doctors' offices, clinics and blood banks to draw blood from patients. They collect blood by performing venipuncture or finger sticks.

Training required: A formal training program typically entails 200 hours of training over the course of four to eight months. Not all states require phlebotomists to be certified, but there are entry-level certifications (Certified Phlebotomy Technician) awarded by the American Society of Clinical Pathology, American Medical Technologies and the American Society of Phlebotomy Technicians.

Cost of training: The full cost of tuition to attain the certification of Certified Phlebotomy Technician typically runs between $2,000 and $2,500.

Expected salary: According to the American Society for Clinical Pathology, median hourly wage of phlebotomists in 2005 was $12.15 in private clinics.

Job availability and outlook: Employment of clinical lab workers -- including phlebotomists -- is expected to grow by 14 percent from now through 2016 due to new tests and an aging population.

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